Jeff's Reference Page

Reference Page, put it in perspective

What i'm attempting here is to make sence of those weirdo dates you read about the oldest person and furthest planet. Or the 10 million volts that hit some guy playing golf. Take a look at the link Nate found... How Stuff Works. -jef

Great Infographic of Size
Current
0.2 Amps P100 Laptop Running
0.4 Amps P100 Laptop Running with Screen on
0.4 Amps AMD400 Running
0.9 Amps AMD1600 Running Idle (2hdds)
1.1 Amps AMD1600 Running & working
15 Amps Laserjet4 spikes ~once a minute
10^-12  Synaptic current (never cell in brain)

10^-10

10^-8  Integrated circuits memory cell

10^-6  

10^-4  Typical integrated circuit
       Thereshold of sensation (in humans)
10^-2  
       Causes ventricular fibrillation (deadly)
10^-0  
       Typical Household appliance
10^2   
       Large Industrial appliance
10^4   Lightning bolt

6 billion billion electrons per second = 1 Ampere

Voltage

10^-8  Antenna of radio receiver

10^-6  
       Electroencephalography (EEG) Human scalp
10^-4  
       Electrocardiogram (EKG) Human chest
10^-2  
       
10^-0  Flashlight battery
       Voltage on integrated circuits
10^2   House wiring
       Large industrial motors
10^4   TV picture tube

10^6   Cross country high tension transmission line

10^8   Lightning
Power
10^-14 Earth receiver from a geosynchronc satlite

10^-12

10^-10 Superconducting Gate

10^-8  Average Human Brain Cell

10^-6  Typical CMOS gate (IC)
       
10^-4  
       Bipolar transistor (small signals)
10^-2  Electronic calculator
       
10^-0  Microprocessor chip
       
10^2   Lightbulb
       Power in a 5 hp lawn mower, Radio Station
10^4   Large industrial motor

10^6   Hydro-electric plant

10^8   Nuclear power plant
       High energy pulse laser
10^10

10^12  Nuclear weapons effects simulator
       Inertial containment fusion experiment
10^14  

1 Horse power = 33,000 foot-lbs/min (lbs moved one foot in one min)
1 Horse power = 746 Watts
1 Watt = 1 joule of work/sec
16,500 Watts is KVSC small radio station
1 BTU (British Thermal Unit) = amount of heat to raise gallon of water 1 degF
1 BTU = heat energy released by striking a kitchen match

Time
Year - - - - - - - Event
Massive Black Hole Evaporates in: ten thousand trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years
14,000,000,000 BC Big Bang
6,000,000,000 BC Earth
4,000,000,000 BC Life (simple)
4,000,000,000 Mars lost atmosphere
1,000,000,000 BC Oldest layer in Grand Canyon
600,000,000 BC Snowball Earth
500,000,000 BC Life (complex)
225,000,000 BC One Continent Pangaea
180,000,000 Earily African Dinosaurs
65,000,000 Dinosaurs Die
40,000,000 Pangaea Separates
15,000,000 Earliest ProtoHuman Found
6,000,000 Chimps / Human Diverge
3,200,000 Lucy Early Human
1,000,000 Grand Canyon Started
350,000 BC Bi Ped Creatures
93,000 BC Human (modern)
20,000 BC Farming
10,000 BC Glacier Over N. America
4,004 BC Religious Beginning of Time
950 BC Greeks
330 BC Hellenistic
150 BC Romans
500 Middle Ages
1,789 Modern Period
1,800 Goto Work
1,812 Nepolean
1,215 King John - Magna Carta (modern govt)
1,400 Market Economies
There have been 1026 nanoseconds since the big bang

Radio, Light, Lasar (concentrated light), Microwaves, Gamma
3-30kHz VLF Very low frequcency
30-300kHz LF Low frequency
3-30Mhz HF High frequency (Short wave)
30-300Mhz VHF Very high frequency
300-3000Mhz UHF Ultrahigh frequency
3-30Ghz SHF Superhigh frequceny
30-300Ghz EHF Extremely high frequcency

CB radio is 27Mhz and 4-5 watts
FM radio is 88-108Mhz
147.015 Collegeville repeater (Superlink, great range, will have 85.4 tone soon)
147.105 Stearns County Emergency Services Repeater (85.4 tone)
146.940 St. Cloud Repeater (Autopatch)
146.835 Elvin's Repeater (Has voicemail - 85.4 tone)
Lots More Frequencies

Odds
Car Crash: 1-in-100
Electrocution: 1-in-5,000
Asteroid Impact: 1-in-20,000
Plane Crash: 1-in-20,000
Tornado: 1-in-60,000
Bite or Sting: 1-in-100,000
Powerball Lotto: 1 in 120,526,770
(5 out of 53, one out of 42)

Money
3M$ Cost of launching Space Shuttle
86M$ Cost of destruction in Oklahoma City bombing
100M$ Cost of building and launching a Satillite
140M$ Creation of Pearl Harbor movie
14B$ Enemies Combined (Iran, Iraq, Syria, NorthKorea,etc)
127B$ Russia, China,India, Taiwan combined
330B$ US Military Spending 2002
555B$ US and NATO combined
3T$ US Govt Spending
13T$ US Economy

Air
78.0842% Nitrogen
20.9463% Oxygen
0.93422% Argon
0.03811% Carbon dioxide
about 1% Water vapor
0.002% Other
CO2 in Air
=3.2 (0.2) Total Atmospheric increase
+6.3 (0.4) Emissions from fossil fuels
-2.2 (0.8) Net emissions from changes in land use
-2.4 (0.7) Oceanic uptake
-2.9 (1.1) Missing carbon sink
Wiki last 400k years CO2
Wiki last 500million years CO2

Speed
186,300 mpSecond Light
18 mpSecond Earth in its orbit
24,000 mph to Escape Earth
78,000 mph Max Speed of Deep Space 1

People
230,000 - People killed in Hirosima 4 Million - Minnesota Population
6 Million - Jews Killed by Hitler in WWII
27 Million - Inca People died from Small Poxs (of 30 Million)
280 Million - US Population
36T - 70 Trillion - Global Savings

Space
1 Parsec = 3.26 light years
1 Parsec = 30.86 trillion km (19 trillion mi)
1 Parsec = 206,265 astronomical units
4 Light Years = Solar System
Orion Arm of Milky Way
100k Light Years = Milky Way Galaxy
10 Million Light Years = Local Group (47 Galaxies)
110 Million Light Years = Virgo Super Cluster
980 Million Light Year = Pisces Cetus Super Cluster Complex
91 Billion Light Years = Universe
Earth to Sun = 1 astronomical unit
Nearest star, 61 Cygni is 3 parsecs away.
Milky Way = 30,000 parsecs in diameter
Sun circles the Milky Way each 250 million years, 56 times since the big bang
500x zoom sperm
DNA 500x zoom chomozone
DNA 5000x zoom individual heulix

Universe
4% atoms
25% dark matter
71% dark energy
mostly flat
current physics super string theory
200 billion stars in Milky Way Galaxy

Brain
100 billion neurons
1k connections per neuron (axon)

Thrust
3 milliNewtons = 600 sq meters solar sail
3 mN = lift a feather
10 mN = ion thruster
60 mN = us quarter
80 mN = hall efect thruster

Mass
Universe = 1075 atoms in the entire universe
Proton = 1.673 x 10^-24 g
Mars = 1/10th Earth
Earth = 6 billion trillion tons
Earth = 6 x 10^21 tons
Black Hole = 3million suns in size dust particle
1 second = 4 Million Tons of Sun's Mass changes to Energy

Data Rates
Chart from Nate
DS0 (Phone) 8bit x 8khz = 64 kbit/sec = 8 k/sec (but quite lossy)
DSL, ISDN = 64 kbit digital
Cable = typical 1.5 Mbit = 183 k/sec max
T1 (DS1) = 24 phone lines = 1.5 Mbit
T3 = 3 x T1 = 4.5 Mbit
Sychronous OPtical NETwork(SONET) Optical Carrier(OC) OC1 = 51.84 Mbit/sec
OC3 = 155.52 Mbit/sec
OC12 = 622.08 Mbit/sec
OC48 = 2.488 Gbit/sec
OC192 = 8.6 Gbit/sec
WDM/OC-48 = 42 Gbit/sec (645,120 voice channels)
FibreChannel
Ethernet 100baseT = 100 Mbit/sec
Ethernet 10baseT = 10 Mbit (in theory) i get 300k bytes/sec with ISA and 1M bytes/sec with PCI
Ethernet Wireless = 350 Kbit/sec Ethernet "Plug in Net" = 350 Kbit/sec ISA = 8 Mbit/sec = 1 Mbyte/sec
PCI 32bit = 133 Mbit/sec
AGP = 267 Mbit/sec
AGPX2 = 533 Mbit/sec
AGPX4 = 1,067 Mbit/sec
Serial Port = 115,200 bit/sec, 14 kbytes/sec
Parrell Port = 81 kbytes/sec, 4.8MB/min
USB = 1.5 Mbit/sec
FireWire = 100 Mbit/sec

TV Resolutions (Scan LInes)
HFC Televsion Services
HDTV 16x9 ratio screen
HDTV 720 x 1080 interlaced
SDTV 480 x 960 interlaced
NTSC 480x 960 interlaced
VHS = 240 lines
DVD = 480 typically
S-Video (also knows as "SVHS" and "Y/C") = 420



References... dont need no stinkin references!

Email me at: Jtkremer@yahoo.com

99.10.30